This is Music Theory 202. The very basic for music theory. This is a certified program from the California Music Conservatory.
21 - Sharp
When you see a sharp symbol in frot of the note, it means the note is a little bit higher. It is a "half step" higher. For example the white key in the piano "C" is a natural note, but if you see a sharp then you have to play the black key, in the middle of C and D. The note will be C sharp.
22 - Flat
When you see a flat symbol in frot of the note, it means the note is a little bit lower. It is a "half step" lower. For example the white key in the piano "E" is a natural note, but if you see a flat then you have to play the black key, in the middle of D and E. The note will be E flat.
23 - Natural
The natural symbol cancels all flats and sharps, if you have a flat note, but then you have the same note with a natural sign, then this note is natural.
24 - Stem Up Or Down
Sometimes you see the stem of the note up or down, the rule is simple, if the note head is on the third line of the staff or higher, then the stem goes down. And below the third line, from the second space of the staff and below, the stem will be pointing upwards. The idea is to make the stem fit inside the staff as much as possible.
25 - Time Signature 3/4
As you know the time signature tells you how many notes and what kind of notes you must have on each measure. The 3/4 has 3 quarter notes per measure, or any combination of notes that makes 3 beats, or 3 counts, like a half note and a quarter note, or like a dotted half note.
26 - Dotted Half Note
A little dot in forn of a note, makes the note last longer then its original value. For example a half note last 2 counts, but a dotted half note last 3 counts, because the dot makes the note half of its value longer, 2 + 1, because 1 is half of 2.
27 - Dotted Half Rest
The same rule applys to a rest, the dotted half rest last 3 counts. You don't really see many of these, but you can have it.
28 - Tie
A tie, is a curvy line taht ties two notes to make te first note last longer. The two notes must be the same, like Re and Re, You can have a Whole note, tie to a Half note, the the duration of the sound will be 6 counts, You must play the first note, and do not play the second note, but hold the sound for as long as the value of the two notes combined.
29 - Counting Intervals
Intervals are very important, we will satudy a lot of them. But for now all you need to know is that you can count the distance from one note to another. From C to E is a 3rd. Because there are 3 notes involved. (C-D-E). From A to D is a 5th, because you have 5 notes total. (A-B-C-D-E). Always count the intervals going UP. And you must count all the notes, from the first to the last. Do not use sharps or flats, count natural notes, like C-D-E-F-G-A-B
30 - The Eighth Note
The Eighth Note last half beat, or half a count, or half of the quarter notes. Two eighth notes makes one quarter note. In a 4/4 tiem signature, you can have 4 quarter notes, or 8 eighth notes, notice you need double the notes to make the same time, because each note last half of the time.
31 - The Eighth Rest
The Eighth Rest last the same as the Eighth Note, half of time, you can have a note or a rest, in a time signature of 4/4, you can have a querter note, an eighth note and an eighth rest, that's two counts and you need two more, another eighth note and an eighth rest and maybe another querter note.
32 - Dotted Quarter Note
Remember that a dot adds half of the notes value, if a note last 4 counts, like a whole note, then with a dot is worth 6 counts. If the note last 2 counts, like a half note, then with a dot last 3 counts, because you add 2 + 1. If the note last 1 count, like the quarter notes, then a quarter note with a dot is worth 1 and a half. It can get a little complicated, you need to study and play music and songs until you understand how it works, then is really easy.
33 - Dotted Quarter Rest
A dotted quarter rest, is worth 1 and a hlaf, like the dotted quarter note, The only way to rally understand it, is playing songs that has a dotted quarter rest, and practice a lot.
34 - Beamed Notes
A beam is a thick line that joins two eighth notes and makes the notes easier to read. An eighth note has a little "flag" or "tail" when you have two eight notes you can see two flags, Instead of putting a flag and a flag, you can add a "Beam" the thick line across the two notes, so it looks nicer. Sometimes when you have many flags in the notes, the music lokks too crowded and difficult to read that is why they have the beam line, to make things look more nicer and easier to read.
35 - Slur
The slur is a curvy line, like the tie, but it goes on top or below many notes, the notes are usually different, and this line is to make a phrase or a motive, it give the music a way of adding phrases.
36 - Fermata
The fermata is a symbol to "STOP" time. In music you alwasy have time and the time is running, click, click , click... so each note has a time. When you want to stop the time you use the fermata, it goes on top or below the note, and at that moment you stop counting. You hold the time, usually for as long as half or a little bit more of the note, but you can actually hold the time, or stop it, for as long as you want, and then after a while the music will continue like normal.
37 - Da Segno
Da segno is an italina term that means "From This Sign" and when you repeat music or a piece of a song, sometimes you have to go back to a certain point in the song, so you use "Da Segno" symbol to put it where you want to go back. And then you say "go to this sign and start playing from there". Use this symbol to repeat music from a specific point in the music, Again, the onlly way to really understand a lot of these symbols is to actually play songs and used them.
38 - 8va
The 8va with little dashed lines means that you have to play all the notes that are below the dashed lines, one octave higher. Instead of writting the notes really high with a lot of ledger lines, you write the notes lower, so they will be easier to read, and add the 8va sign, to tell the performer to play the same notes, but higher, an octave higher.
39 - The C Clef
The C clef is a clef like the Treble Clef or The Bass Clef, but is for "Viola" a string strument like the violin but a little bit bigger. A lot of people don't even know this clef exist, because is not very popular, but student who wants to play viola, they have to learn this clef like guitar students learn the treble clef, or trombone students learn the bass clef. You put the C clef in the satff and the note C is at the center of the clef.
40 - Moderato 108 - 120
The speed of the music can be fast or slow. We use italian names to tell how fast or slow the music should be, "Moderato" means "Moderatelly" or not too fast, not too slow, and the tempo is 108 to 120. The numbers are from the "Metronome" a machines that measures time in music. Each beat is one "Tick" at 60, will be one tick per second, 60 seconds = 60 ticks. You call it 60 bmp (Beats per Minutes) so 108 is faster then 60, and 120 is twice as fast as 60. Like 2 ticks per second. Again, you need to play a lot of songs using different speeds to get the idea of the speed, for now is just so you get some information