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This course will help you learn how to make all the scales and all the chords in music. It will show you how you can use chords and scales to play every single song, and will help you understand music better. Take this class along with the course Intervals If you want to understand music better.

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You need to know how to play many chords, and play some piano, or guitar, as well as understand some music.

This is NOT a beginners class.

In The Key Of C

When you listen to a song, you are listening to a key. Every single song is in the key of C, or the key of G, or in the key of F, or any other key.

There are some songs that change key, they start in one key and then they go to another key

And some songs, specially classical music, they don't even have a key, but this kind of songs will not be here, is in another class

Most of the popular music, or songs they always have a key.

There are MAJOR KEYS

There are minor KEYS

To learn how to play a song by ear, and understand the keys, you need to study some intervals, progressions, the notes of the music, and train your ear.

The 12 Sounds Of Music

The first thing that you need to know is, that in music you have 12 sounds.

A Piano Keyboard

In the piano you can see 5 black keys and 7 white keys

5 Black Keys and 7 White Keys are 12 keys, or 12 sounds

Each key is a different sound

The 12 sounds are:

C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B

The 12 sounds with the name of the notes

You can also learn it with the notes, like this...

Do Do# Re Re# Mi
Fa Fa# Sol Sol# La La# Si

The Placement Of The Notes

Look at the piano with the notes,and the letter names

A Piano Keyboard

Notice a few things...

From C to D there is one note in the middle...C#

From D to E there is one note in the middle...D#

From E to F there is nothing...

From F to G there is one note in the middle...F#

From G to A there is one note in the middle...G#

From A to B there is one note in the middle...A#

If we keep going and start all over again from C, we have a new set of notes.

exactly the same...

A Piano Keyboard

Notice that there is no black key from E to F

And there is no black key from B to C

A set of 12 sounds is an Octave

Learn all the notes really well

The Octave

The Octave is like this...

A Piano Keyboard
C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B

We can put another octave after the first one like this

A Piano Keyboard

If we do this, then notice that from B to C there is no SHARP notes

We can continue adding more octaves, until we have a lot

A Full Piano has 7 octaves a few more keys, 88 in total

A Piano Keyboard

The Sharps And Flats

In music you have SHARPS and also you have the FLATS...

A Piano Keyboard
A Piano Keyboard

Look at the piano with the same notes but going backwards

A Piano Keyboard
B Bb A Ab G Gb F E Eb D Db C

You can also see the flats going up

C Db D Eb E F Gb G Ab A Bb B

Or you can have the SHARPS going down

B A# A G# G F# F E D# D C# C

You can have any order you like...but the notes always have the same order

Like the numbers, or the days of the week, or the months

The order will always be the same


You need to know the order of the notes very good

Memorize it, repeat the order of the notes a lot of times

Enharmonic Notes

A Piano Keyboard

You have Sharps and Flats, but these are two names for the same notes

C# and Db is the same note, and it has the same sound

They just have a different name

The 5 black keys on the piano are enharmonic

C# is the same as Db
D# is the same as Eb
F# is the same as Gb
G# is the same as Ab
A# is the same as Bb

So the 12 sounds are:

1 C
2 C# or Db
3 D
4 D# or Eb
5 E
6 F
7 F# or Gb
8 G
9 G# or Ab
10 A
11 A# or Bb
12 B
A Piano Keyboard

And this way is easier to learn and memorize.

The Twelve Major Keys Are:

1 The Key Of C Major
2 The Key Of C# Major or Db Major
3 The Key Of D Major
4 The Key Of D# Major or Eb Major
5 The Key Of E Major
6 The Key Of F Major
7 The Key Of F# Major or Gb Major
8 The Key Of G Major
9 The Key Of G# Major or Ab Major
10 The Key Of A Major
11 The Key Of A# Major or Bb Major
12 The Key Of B Major

We don't need the "Major" all the time

Because we know all the keys are major, we don't have to write the "Major" word all the time

If we see a letter by itself we know is in the Major key.

Like in the key of Ab.

Or like in the key of E.

There are 12 sounds or 12 notes, and there are 12 major keys

One key for each note. And remember that for D# key, there is also an Eb key

The most popular keys are:

1 C
2 G
3 D
4 F
5 A
6 Bb
7 E
8 Eb
9 Ab
10 B
11 Db
12 F# or Gb

Remember, just write the letter, like C, and we know is C Major

Some keys are more popular than others

Maybe because they are easier to play, or they sound better or because they have been used a lot more

For any reason. Here you can see the most popular keys. Remember they are all Major Keys

The Key Of C

Very popular, easy to play. It has no sharps and no flats


The Key Of Db

Db is more popular than C#, maybe because it has less accidentals

C# has 7 sharps, is more difficult to read so many sharps

And Db has only 5 flats, a little bit easier

So Db is more popular


The Key Of D

This Key is very popular, I like this key a lot.

The Key Of D has 2 sharps


The Key Of Eb

The Key of Eb is a lot more popular than D#

Same reason, less accidentals

Eb only has 3 flats, and D# has 6 sharps


The Key Of E

Also very popular

The Key Of E has 3 sharps


The Key Of F

Easy to play

Only has 1 flat


The Key Of F#

From F# or Gb, I think F# wins

Some people may say is Gb others like F# better

It also has to do with what instrument you play

If you play Sax, or Trumpet or Bb Clarinet, you may like Gb better

But both are about the same, but less popular than all the others in this list

F# has 6 sharps

And Gb has 6 flats


The Key Of G

Of course, after the Key of C, This key is the most popular

Only has 1 sharp

The chords on the guitar, for this key are very easy to play

Sounds great and many people have written music for this key


The Key Of Ab

Ab is also popular

It has 4 flats

People prefer this key over the G# key


The Key Of A

Very popular, specially in country or folk music

A has 3 sharp


The Key Of Bb

From A# or Bb, of course, Bb wins by far

It has 2 flats

For Bb instruments is a great key


The Key Of B

And finally we have the key of B

Even when it has 5 sharps it's also very popular


The Key Signature

You need to learn the key signatures really well.

A Piano Keyboard

With no sharps or no flats

In the key of C

With sharps

1 sharp In the key of G
2 sharps In the key of D
3 sharps In the key of A
4 sharps In the key of E
5 sharps In the key of B
6 sharps In the key of F#
7 sharps In the key of C#


With Flats

1 flat In the key of F
2 flats In the key of Bb
3 flats In the key of Eb
4 flats In the key of Ab
5 flats In the key of Db
6 flats In the key of Gb
7 flats In the key of Cb

The order of the sharps

The order of the sharps are like this:


Or the same order using the letters instead of the notes



If we don't say the sharp all the time, because we know they are sharp anyway

Just like we don't have to write Major all the time

We just learn the notes in order, it's easier... with the notes:


The order of the flats

The order of the flats are like this:


Or the same order using the letters instead of the notes



Notice that the order is backwards from the sharps

You need to memorize both, sharps and flats

All you need to play a song - PART 1 -

Normally a song will be in a key

And you have the "Melody" what they are singing

And the harmony or the accompaniment.

The melody is the SCALE

The harmony is the CHORDS

All the songs in the world, has melody and harmony

Unless you have a song with just the melody by itself

So all the songs have CHORDS and SCALES, that's it!



Let's try this melody

A Piano Keyboard

First listen to the song

You have to know in which key is the song

Listen to the melody, first

Try to sing the melody, and listen to the melody many times

Now play the melody in your instrument

As you play the melody, you will notice if it has sharps or flats

Lets say the melody is like this...

You can see that you have a Bb in the melody

Because it has some flats then is not in the key of C

Is not in the key of G, because the key of G has NO flats

Is not in the key of D, because the key of D has NO flats

Is not in the key of A, because the key of A has NO flats

So it will not be in any of the SHARPS keys.

So it has to be in some FLAT key.


So let's see the flat keys

The Key of F has 1 flat, the Bb. So this maybe the key...

The Key of Bb has 2 flats, Bb and Eb, but the melody has no Eb at all...

And all of the other keys has a lot more flats, so is not in those keys either.

So then the song must be in the key of F


All you need to play a song - PART 2 -

As you can see, just with a few notes you can find out the key


Is not as easy as it looks...

You need a lot of practice

You need to know all the scales

And you need to train your ear to listen to the melody


Some people listen to the bass notes.

That is also a melody

The idea is to find some notes, and from there, you can find out which key is the correct key.


Let's try another melody

A Piano Keyboard

Always listen to the melody many times

As soon as you see that the melody has SHARPS, then is not in any of the flats keys

And is not in the key of G, because the key of G has only Fa#, and the melody has a Do#.

With two sharps must be in the key of D

The next key is the A, and the A has: F#-C#-G#

Notice that the note Sol, or G, is not Sharp, so it can not be in A

So this melody is in the key of D

How to make all the scales

As you know now, you have to know how to play all the scales.

Instead of trying to learn one scale at a time, one by one

Is better to learn how you can play any scale.

So let's learn how.


For each note there is one Major scale.

There are a lot of scales, let's learn the Major first.

So there is the C scale

The C# scale

The Db scale

The D scale

The D# scale

The Eb scale

The E scale

Ans so on... one scale for each note.


The Ab Scale

So how do you make the Ab scale?

First you need to start with the Ab and finish with the Ab

A Piano Keyboard

you know that the scale has 8 notes, so write 8 numbers

A Piano Keyboard

Then you write the name of the notes in order, make sure is always in order

A Piano Keyboard

Now, all you have to do, is add the flats to each note, according to the key signature

The key signature for Ab has 4 flats. (I hope you know that)

So the 4 flats are: Bb - Eb - Ab - Db. Always in that order

So if the note is Bb, then put a flat to B

A Piano Keyboard

The next note is a C, and the C has no flat in the key signature, so leave the key natural.

And add the flats to the notes, the Eb and the Db...

A Piano Keyboard

And that's it! you have the Ab scale, ... simple!


See how easy? it doesn't matter, which scale you choose, there all the same, easy to make.

Let's Make The Eb Scale

Now let's make the Eb scale.

Do the same steps...

Now let's make the Eb scale.

A Piano Keyboard

Now let's see the F# Scale

There is no difficult scale, all scales are easy

Let's try a "difficult" scale, the F# scale

If you know the key signatures, is easy

The F# has 6 sharps...

The order of the sharps is: F#-C#-G#-D#-A#-E#, right?

A Piano Keyboard

All The Scales

The idea is that you know how to play all the scales, And that you can play the scales more or less well, up and down. You have to know at least the most popular major scales

7 Natural Major Scales

The C Scale
The D Scale
The E Scale
The F Scale
The G Scale
The A Scale
The B Scale

All these scales are major scales. You need to know how to play all these scales, Up and down and at least two octaves, and you need to know the notes for each scale by heart

7 Sharp Major Scales

The C# Scale
The D# Scale
The E# Scale
The F# Scale
The G# Scale
The A# Scale
The B# Scale

From this group, you need to know at least the C#, the F# and the D#, The E# is not very important, is not popular at all, and it has double sharps. Difficult to learn and play, and besides, it sounds the same as the F scale. So if you want the E#, play the F scale instead, is easier and better. The same thing goes for the B#, the B# is the C scale. As for the G# and the A#, is better to play the enharmonic scale, The G# is the Ab scale. And the A# is the Bb scale

7 Flat Major Scales

The Cb Scale
The Db Scale
The Eb Scale
The Fb Scale
The Gb Scale
The Ab Scale
The Bb Scale

The Cb is not popular, is the same as the B scale, Also for the Fb scale, is the same as the E scale. As far as all the other five scales, they are all very important


So you have 21 major scales. You know how to make each scale, but practice and learn the most important ones

The Most Important Major Scales

1 The C Scale
2 The Db Scale
3 The D Scale
4 The Eb Scale
5 The E Scale
6 The F Scale
7 The Gb Scale
8 The G Scale
9 The Ab Scale
10 The A Scale
11 The Bb Scale
12 The B Scale


There are many more scales, as you keep learning you will know more, For now you can not continue, unless you can play these popular major scales

General Table Of Intervals

A Piano Keyboard

Let's study this table, before keep learning more intervals We said before that you have only 12 notes, correct? So the distance from one note to another must be either from 1 to 1 or from 1 to 12. From 1 to 6, or from 1 to 3 or from 1 to 9, Any number from 1 to 12, nothing else...

Notice that there is one distance from 1 to 13, right? The note number 13 is the same note as 1, it it just higher.

The Octave

It's called, An Octave. Any distance from 1 to 13 is an Octave, From Fa# to the next higher Fa# is an Octave. From B to the next higher B is an Octave... like that An Octave will always be 8 notes higher...If you count ALL the notes, then you have 13 notes distance.

Perfect 4th and Perfect 5th

Now, notice the YELLOW color. You have a PERFECT FOURTH and a PERFECT FIFTH. When the distance is 6 notes (counting all the notes) is a Perfect 4th, When the distance is 8 notes, then is a Perfect 5th. Let's say you have a note: Ab

You go higher and higher and count 6 notes: 1-Ab ... 2-A ... 3-Bb ... 4-B ... 5-C ... 6-Db. So a perfect fourth is from Ab to Db, always and the same goes for the perfect 5th, From B to F# is a perfect 5th, why?

You need to count 8 notes, correct? Count all the notes in a chromatic scale, 1-B, 2-C, 3-C#, 4-D, 5-D#, 6-E, 7-F, 8-F#. And you have the note F# or Fa#, so that is why. From B to F# is a perfect 5th (Or from Si to Fa#)

minor and Major Intervals

Now, notice the PINK and the BLUE

The blue are minor, the pink are Major

The Major and minor intervals are:

The 2nd, the 3rd, the 6th and the 7th

All those intervals will always have Major and minor

minor 2nd, Major second

minor 3rd, Major 3rd

minor 6th, Major 6th

minor 7th, Major 7th

And you just have to learn and memorize the numbers

2 notes - minor 2nd

3 notes - Major 2nd

4 notes - minor 3rd

5 notes - Major 3rd

We said that the 6 is a Perfect 4th

the 7 , we'll see that next

the 8 is a Perfect Fifth

9 notes - minor 6th

10 notes - Major 6

11 notes - minor 7th

12 notes - Major 7th

Now you do some exercises to understand this much better

Augmented or Diminished

And finally we have an interval that is the same interval

Sounds the same, and it has the same distance

But it has a different name

So how do you know, when is Augmented or when is diminished?

Augmented means making it LARGER, or BIGGER

Diminished means making something SMALLER, or REDUCED something

So when the interval is from Do to Fa#

You know that from Do to Fa is a PERFECT 4th

You know is a 4th, because is Do to Fa

So you have 4 notes: Do-Re-Mi-Fa

By making the note Fa, Fa#, you are making the distance Bigger,

So it is an AUGMEMTED 4th

But if the interval is from Do to Solb

Then from Do to Sol, is a 5th

You have 5 notes: Do-Re-Mi-Fa-Sol

But you are Reducing the distance by making the Sol, Solb

So the interval is a diminished 5th

Study more to understand more

I know it can get confusing

Specially the first time you start to learn all this.

Keep learning, keep reading, ask questions, and you will understand better, in time.

If you don't get it, please ask me any thing you want

Send an e-mail to

I am here to help

Now, go on and do many intervals on your own and practice a lot

And keep learning!

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